Transformation Image
© Coral Reef Image Bank Indonesia_Beth Watson

Conservation of Marine Protected Areas

Areas of Transformation
Ocean Health
Implementation Region
Implementation Scale

The government of Indonesia has increased efforts in the ocean health sector to achieve its 2030 goals of having healthy marine and coastal ecosystems and increasing the use of nature-based solutions.


It has done so by increasing the scope of its marine protected areas. In 2018, the government met its commitment to conserve 20 million hectares of its marine areas.

underwater world of the red sea with corals and tropical fish

By the end of 2018, 20.88 million hectares of marine conservation areas had been established, exceeding the intended target by 880,000 hectares.

seascape with tropical fish and coral reefs

The country has an extensive target to designate 30 million hectares as MPAs by 2030 and has protected 24 million hectares as of 2021.


Designating an area as an MPA may spark conflicts with local industries and users.

Although the tourism industry often benefits from such adjustments as cleaner, more biodiverse areas typically attract more tourists, the designation may lead to fishers losing their jobs or being compensated by the government for being forced to change their previous operation methods.

Recipe for Successful Implementation

For a similar policy to be successful elsewhere, it is through strong community engagement and effective enforcement that these areas can be fully protected.

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